South America: Peru Venezuela Ecuador. From the 1874 Mitchell Atlas of the World. This beautiful hand colored map is a gift of history.
In May of 1874, the Congress of Venezuela enacted a new constitution. It was similar to its predecessor in most aspects, but made a few modifications. Voters were now forced to sign a pledge and presidential reelection was prohibited.
An armed rebellion known as the Revolution of the Choir took place in October of 1874. It worked to overthrow the government of President Antonio Leocadio Guzmán Blanco, who founded Venezuela's Liberal Party and brought the civil wars to an end. The autocratic nature of his regimes contradicted with the economic and legal reforms he introduced. The Revolution did not succeed. However, it demonstrated the solidity of Guzmán's government and the control he had on regional warlords. Guzmán moved on to attract foreign investment, modernize infrastructure, and develop agriculture and education in Venezuela. Guzmán also attempted to introduce French social mores, thus enhancing the rift with Imperial Spain. Venezuela had served as no more than a defensive frontier during the three centuries of Spanish rule, as it did not have rich mineral deposits or dense population for labor exploitation. This nation's small population and vulnerable coastline put their hope for autonomy at risk of the threats capitalism provided. Guzmán thus epitomized the trend toward national and economic integration during his rule.
The rubber boom began in Peru during the 1870s. Optimum conditions include heavy year round rainfall, temperature ranges of about 68°F to 93°F, high humidity, steady, bright sunshine, and an absence of strong winds. All of which are present in Peru. The associated need for a great workforce effected the indigenous population of the Amazon significantly. Natural rubber was made a desirable commodity by the Industrial Revolution. It created both wealth and a desire to invest in Peru and the surrounding Amazonian countries.
President Gabriel García Moreno ruled over Ecuador during the 60s and 70s. He was known for his conservatism, devotion to Catholicism, opposition to corruption, and leading role in science and higher education within Latin America. Moreno was said to have economically and agriculturally advanced Ecuador during his rule. He was assassinated in 1875.
Archival reproduction print from a high resolution scan. 24" x 15"