1874 Mitchell World Atlas -Afghanistan, Turkey. There was oil all over the place on this map of the Middle East, but in 1874 when Mitchell published this World Atlas, that fact was irrelevant. This beautiful hand colored map from that Atlas is reproduced from a high resolution scan of a very good original. Arabia, Persia, Turkey, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, Khuzistan, Candahar, Luristan, Laristan, Kerman.
The Anglo-Afghan Wars took place as three separate wars spanning from 1839 to 1919. The first war was fought between the British East India Company and Afghanistan. The war one of the first among many conflicts during the Great Game, the nineteenth century competition for power and influence in Asia between the United Kingdom and Russia. Insurrections broke out when the British army entered the nation in 1839. Afghans refused to tolerate foreign occupation or a king imposed on them by a foreign power. Britain eventually found their position indefensible and evacuated. The second war also ended with the withdrawing of British troops. The Afghans were permitted to maintain internal sovereignty, but had to cede control of foreign relations. The third war was a minor tactical victory for the British. The Durand Line was reaffirmed as the political boundary between Afghanistan and India. The Afghan people resumed the right to conduct their own foreign affairs as a fully independent state. Through these wars, the British learned how easy Afghanistan was to take, and how impossible it was to hold.
The Ottoman Empire ruled from 1299 to 1923. It was also referred to as the Turkish Empire and was a state founded by Turkish tribes. The Empire reached the height of its power during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries under Suleiman the Magnificent. A multinational and multilingual empire, it was one of the most powerful states in the world and controlled much of southeast Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa. The Empire was dissolved after World War I and replaced by various boundaries drawn by the British and the French forming the states we know today like Iraq, Kuwait, and modern Afghanistan.
Archival reproduction print from high resolution scan. 12" x 15"