From the 1874 Mitchell Atlas of the World. This Hand Colored map of Australia and "Oceanica" includes in hand colored detail, the Marquesas, New Zealand and the Sandwich Islands among many others.
In 1877, Australia and England played the first ever cricket Test match in Melbourne. It organized differently from international cricket matches today. Today, the matches can last up to five days, as test cricket is the longest form of cricket. The nineteenth century matches consisted of a 48 day boat ride between Australia and England. Many cricketers from around the world were unable or unwilling to take this journey. The teams were also far from as representative as they are today, as they were essentially just England vs. Australia contests. As such, the home teams enjoyed an enormous advantage.
The 1850s and 1860s brought the discovery of gold in a small section of southern Australia. Almost every able bodied man was drawn to the mining areas of South Australia. The most significant loss of population occurred in other parts of South Australia, as they became relatively empty. Immigrants from Europe, America, and China began congregating in Victoria and Ballarat. The economy boomed and the population of Australia changed radically. In Victoria, the population nearly tripled. The gold rush left a legacy in both the quaint Victorian towns and the spectrum of ghost towns at the other end. The slump in gold production was brought by a shortage of gold and the distraction of the Great War. Australia never fully recovered, but 2005 saw a resurgence in commercial mining activity with an increase in the gold price.
In 1876, the last known full blooded Tasmanian aboriginal, Truganini died. The Aboriginal Tasmanians were the indigenous people of Tasmania, a state located in southern Australia. Before the British takeover in 1803, up to 15,000 people are estimated to have existed. Many historians point towards disease as the primary cause of the countless deaths. Others regard the Black war as one of the earliest modern genocides. This conflict lasted about half a decade during the nineteenth century. Mass killings of the Tasmanian Aborigines were reported at the hands of British colonists. All of the tribes languages have been lost, though work has been done to reconstruct a language from the available wordlists. Aspects of the culture have been preserved and are still being practiced in some areas of Australia today.
Archival reproduction print from high resolution scan. 12" x 15"