From the 1874 Mitchell Atlas of the World. A beautiful hand colored map of South America, namely Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay. Mitchell's signature grape and vine border.
By 1875, Brazil was providing about half of the world's coffee. Ideal conditions for the cultivation of coffee include high elevation and a tropical climate, both present in parts of Brazil. Today, it still remains the world's largest producer, making about a third of all coffee. The crop was first introduced during the 19th century. It was not native to the Americas and had to be planted. It reached its peak in 1920s, supplying 80 percent of the world's coffee.
The Paraguayan War, a conflict fought between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, ended with the defeat of Paraguay in 1870. The war had caused more deaths proportionally to the number of soldiers than any other war in modern history. Up to 200,000 people are said to have died because of the war. Paraguay took decades to recover from the chaos and population imbalance, as their male population was left devastated, caused by this conflict. The event helped bring an end to slavery in Brazil, moved its military to a important role internationally, and caused a terrible increase in public debt, which led to a reduction in the country's growth. In Argentina, some say the war played a role in its consolidation as a nation-state.
The expulsion of Jesuits in 1767 had a startling impact on Chilean medicine in colonial times. King Charles III's decision to expel the Jesuits resulted in the clear deterioration of medical development. The group had concentrated the culture elite and made up many of the best professionals and libraries. A severe shortage in practicing doctors seriously handicapped the fight against smallpox and other plagues. It wasn't until the installation of the Republic and creation of the University of Chile that medical development thrived again.
Túpac Katari served as leader in the Bolivian indigenous people's rebellions against the Spanish Empire in the early 1780s. With an army of 40,000, he laid siege to La Paz in 1781. The siege was maintained for 184 days, until Spanish troops defeated the rebel army. Though eventually tortured gruesomely and executed, Katari is remembered as a hero by modern indigenous movements, who have dubbed themselves the Katarismo.
Archival reproduction print from high resolution scan. 12" x 15"