From the Mitchell Atlas of the World 1874. A wonderful map of Europe from 140 years ago.
Victorian womanhood in Great Britain was characterized by a domestic and helpless nature. Women’s confinement to the home was not voluntary, because most legal systems in the West stripped them of their property rights once they married.” Women were expected to be submissive to their husbands. They were considered inferior to the men, and therefore expected to listen to the master of the house. Several facts of Victorian womanhood were masked by society. The women had to contribute to support their families, and many were quite skilled. Many women also took their primary identity from the money they earned for their family’s well being. Ideal qualities of a woman included her being “clean, hard working, economical, and modest, in a way she performs the same miracle as our divine redeemer, converting hard rocks into bread” (A Fictional Depiction of Womanhood).
The Franco-Prussian War began in 1870 and ended a year later. The conflict pitted the French Empire and Kingdom of Prussia against one another. The North German Confederation aided Prussia. Tension had been rising due to past conflicts, failures, and resentment. Prussia and the German States used industrial technology to their advantage. The war ended with the victory of Prussia and its allies. A primary consequence of the war was the unification of Germany into an empire in its own right. Otto von Bismarck ruled the nation under an authoritarian constitution that elected a national parliament, but gave the Kaiser extensive powers. The now unified industrializing nation shifted the balance of power in Europe. The fight brought an end to second empire France. Post-war tension between the two sides is considered a precursor to World War I.
Archival reproduction print from high resolution scan. 12" x 15"