A border of Grape and Vine on this hand colored map of North America is some of the finest work from the Mitchell Atlas of the World.
The Continental Army invaded Canada in the Battle of Quebec in 1775. The goal of the invasion was to gain control of Quebec and convince the people to join the revolution. This was the first major military initiative by the newly formed army. The army fought against British defenders of Quebec and proved the first major defeat for the Americans. A high price was paid through the death of General Richard Montgomery, the wounding of Benedict Arnold, and more than 400 American troops taken prisoner. In the battle and following siege, French speaking Canadians played an active part on both sides. Local residents provided the Continental Army with supplies. On the other side, the city's defenders included a locally raised militia. A number of Canadian supporters accompanied the Americans when they retreated. The remaining supporters were punished by the British when they re-established control.
The Louisiana Purchase took place in 1803 when the United States acquired France's claim to the Louisiana territory. The territory encompassed the present day states of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. Parts of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, New Mexico, Texas, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Louisiana were also included. America paid about $15 million for the land, which would total up to about $230 million in today's dollars. France had controlled this land from 1699 to 1762, when it gave the land to its ally, Spain. The territory was recaptured under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1800 in the hope of building an empire in North America. With an impending war with Britain and violent slave war in Haiti, Napoleon abandoned these plans and sold the land overnight to the Americans. President Thomas Jefferson presided over the purchase, without the knowledge or consent of Congress. The purchase was agreed to be unconstitutional. Jefferson, however, was pardoned, as the purchase proved incredibly advantageous for the new nation.
Mexico was on the tumultuous road to a revolution during the 1870s. In 1877, there was a revolt, after which Porfirio Díaz took control. He essentially ruled as a dictator until the early twentieth century. Mexico underwent significant commercial and economic development. This was largely aided by Díaz's encouragement of foreign investment. The modernizing reforms he made turned Mexico City into a bustling capital. However, the reforms for the most part long benefited the wealthy and did little to change the lives of the lower classes. The discontent this bred would later lead to a revolution.
Archival reproduction print from high resolution scan. 12" x 15"